Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong’s article charts vision to build strong Vietnam (Part I)

On the occasion of the 94th founding anniversary of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV), Party General Secretary Prof. Nguyen Phu Trong pens an article titled "Proud and confident under the Party's glorious flag, determined to build a Vietnam more prosperous, powerful, civilised, heroic with a fine and long lasting culture." Full translation of the article is as follows:
Party General Secretary’s article charts vision to build strong Vietnam (Part I)
Party General Secretary’s article charts vision to build strong Vietnam: General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong. (Photo: VNA)

"As we all know, the Communist Party of Vietnam was founded on February 3, 1930. This means that on February 3, 2025, our Party will be 95 years old and turn 100 in 2030. These are shining milestones of great historical significance to our Party, our country and our nation. At present, the entire of our Party, people, and army are joining hands and taking every chance and advantages to weather every difficulty and challenge with a determination to successfully realise many policies, goals, and tasked included in the resolution of the 13th National Party Congress. At the same time, we start the preparations for Party congresses at all levels, moving toward the 14th National Party Congress.

The 14th National Party Congress will conduct a profound review and evaluation of the implementation of the 13th National Party Congress's resolution, summarise the 40 years of implementing the national renewal process in the orientation to socialism and, on the basis of which, draw valuable lessons; determine the orientation, goals, and tasks for the entire of our Party, people, and army for the next five years spanning from 2026 to 2030; and continue to successfully implement the 10-year socio-economic development strategy (2021-2030). The 14th Congress will be another important milestone in the development path of our country and nation, having the future-orienting significance; encourage, inspire, and motivate the entire of our Party, people, and army to continue persisting the way to socialism; affirm that this is the righteous and clear-minded selection which is suitable to the reality in Vietnam and the development trend of the time; continue to comprehensively and concertedly push up the renewal cause, firmly safeguard the Motherland; and strive to turn our country into a developing one with a modern industry and high middle income by 2030 when we mark the Party's centenary.

To actively contribute to the celebration of the Party's anniversary on February 3, 2024, instilling the pride of the glorious Party, the great President Ho Chi Minh and the heroic Vietnamese nation; to further fortify confidence in the Party's leadership and the bright future of our nation and people; and to further raise the sense of responsibility of officials and Party members across the entire political system, to continue bringing into play the spirit of patriotism and revolution spirit of the entire nation, to stay determined to build our country more and more prosperous, civilised, cultured and heroic; it is necessary for us to objectively and comprehensively review and assess the main outcomes, achievements, and lessons learnt throughout our Party's historical stages, including (1) The Party's inception, leading the revolution, and gaining of power (1930-1945); (2) The nationwide resistance war and restoration of peace in the North (1946-1954); (3) The building of socialism in the North, the struggle for liberation of the South, and the national reunification (1955-1975); (4) Settling the consequences of war, safeguarding the territorial integrity of the Motherland, and gradual progressing towards socialism (1976-1985); (5) Launching of the renewal cause, building our country to be more modern, beautiful; expanding international relations, proactively and actively integrating into the global community in a comprehensive and extensive way; our country has never had such a fortune, potential, status and international prestige like it does today (1986-now); and (6) Looking ahead to 2030, the centenary of the Party. On the basis of this, tasks and solutions can be worked out to continue raising the Party's leadership and power holding capacity; push up concertedly and comprehensively the renewal cause; and successfully achieve the goals set forth by the 13th National Party Congress, which are to build our country increasingly prosperous, democratic, civilised, prosperous, and happy in the direction toward socialism by 2025 and 2030. This article is one of the ideas in line with the spirit mentioned above and is presented in a structure comprising three main parts as follows:


The millennia-long history of our nation has proven that patriotism, defence of the country, determination to fight foreign aggressions, safeguard of national independence, sovereignty and unity are traditions of the extreme value of our people. Continuing this tradition, from the mid-19th century when French colonialists invaded our homeland, our people repeatedly rose up struggling through patriotic, continuous and strong movements through many ways with different trends, refusing to succumb to slavery. From the ways for national salvation by scholars to peasants' uprisings and the bourgeoisie revolutionary paths, despite their staunch efforts, whole-hearted dedication and immense sacrifices, these movements failed to arrive at success due to their historical limitations, especially the absence of a correct path. History demanded a new path to be found.

In 1911, the young patriot Nguyen Tat Thanh [our beloved Uncle Ho] left the country to seek a new way for national salvation and the struggle for national independence. Driven by a burning aspiration to save the country, he approached Marxism-Leninism and found in this revolutionary doctrine the right path for national salvation – that of proletarian revolution. Throughout the many years of intensive travels and activities overseas, he persisted in studying and creatively applying Marxism-Leninism and incrementally disseminated it to Vietnam, while strenuously preparing conditions necessary for the establishment of a genuine revolutionary party.

On February 3, 1930, a conference on merging communist organisations was convened in Kowloon, Hong Kong (China) under the chair of leader Nguyen Ai Quoc decided to merge the then communist organisations in Vietnam into a single party which was named the Communist Party of Vietnam. It is a historic turning-point, putting an end to the protracted crisis in the organisation and guidelines of the Vietnamese revolution. The birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam was the result of the convergence of Marxism-Leninism and the workers’ and patriotic movements, showing that the Vietnamese working class had matured and had sufficient capacity to shoulder the historic mission of leadership over the revolution. The Party’s first Political Platform adopted at this founding conference identified the fundamental path for the Vietnamese revolution that met the urgent demand of the Nation and the impassioned aspiration of the People.

Within a mere 15 years since its founding, in flesh-and-blood bond with the population, and enjoying their full support and trust, our Party led the national liberation struggle and conducted three revolutionary high-tides: the 1930-1931 high-tide that culminated in the Nghe Tinh -Soviet movement, the 1936-1939 high-tide demanding social welfare and democracy, and the 1939-1945 high-tide of the national liberation revolution, so that in 1945, when the time for the revolution was ripe, the Communist Party of Vietnam led the entire Vietnamese nation to the landslide victory of the August 1945 Revolution and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2, 1945 (the 80th anniversary of which will be celebrated in 2025).

Hardly had the Democratic Republic of Vietnam been born when the revolution was to face numerous difficulties and challenges, among them the simultaneous confrontation with a three-fold enemy, namely hunger, illiteracy and foreign invasions. In such a time of great peril, the Party led our people through the situation which was “hung by a hair,” unyieldingly safeguarding and building the infantile government, while proactively making all-round preparations to embark upon the war of resistance against the French colonialists.

Following the direction of an “all-people,” “all-sided,” “long-term” and “essentially self-reliant” war of resistance, and building on the tradition of national unity and patriotism, our Party led the people to successively defeat all of the enemy’s schemes and plans of aggression. Of special significance was the victory of the 1953-1954 Winter-Spring Operation, with its culmination being the historic Dien Bien Phu victory that “resounded over the five continents and shook the globe,” and that drove the French colonialists into signing the Geneva Accords in 1954, thus ending their war of aggression against Vietnam.

From 1955 to 1975, our country was divided into two parts. Under the leadership of the Party, the North exerted great efforts to build socialism and fight the destruction war conducted by US imperialists., while devoting all of its energy to fulfilling the duty of a great rear to the great frontline in the south. The people of the South continued their undaunted struggle for national independence and reunification. Imbued with the spirit “We would rather sacrifice all than surrendering our country and being enslaved” and “Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom,” following the Party’s sound and creative guidelines, and thanks to the entire nation’s aggregate strength, our armed forces and people successively defeated the American imperialists’ war strategies, completely liberated the South, and reunified the country on April 30, 1975. This victory will “be written in the history of our nation eternally as one of most glorious pages and a bright symbol of a complete victory of revolutionary heroism and Vietnamese people’s wisdom, and go down in world history as a great feat of the 20th century and an event of pivotal international importance and profound epoch-making magnitude” (we will celebrate the 50th anniversary of national reunification in 2025).

While having to work to urgently address extremely grave war aftermaths, the Vietnamese people continued to confront newly staged wars. Under the Party’s leadership, our armed forces and people focused on socio-economic restoration while fighting to defend our borderlines and safeguarding our sacred national independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty. All the while, we succeeded in fulfilling the international duty of helping the Cambodian people escape from genocide and revive their country.

Looking back at the 1930-1975 journey, we are very proud, confident and deeply grateful to the sound leadership of the Party and the great Uncle Ho that led the Vietnamese revolution from one resounding victory to another, continuing to write brilliant golden pages in the history of the civilised and heroic Vietnamese nation which is admired and appreciated by the world: Successfully carrying out the resounding August Revolution, helping people gained power and taking our country out of colonialism in 1945; The long resistance war against the French colonialists ended with the Geneva Agreement and Dien Bien Phu victory that resounded over the five continents and shock the globe; Building socialism and fighting against the destructive war of US imperialism in the North, while engaging in the resistance war to save the country, liberate the South, re-unify the country, ending with the Dien Bien Phu in the air and the historic Ho Chi Minh campaigns.”



After the national reunification, our country had to face many of very heavy consequences left by the 30 years of war. To address war consequences and continue building socialism nationwide, our Party focused its leadership over the building and implementation of the five-year socio-economic development plans for 1976 - 1980 and 1981 - 1985. As a result, socio-economic infrastructure, especially industrial, agricultural, healthcare, education - training, transport, and irrigation facilities were gradually recovered. The state economy and collective economy were nurtured and contributed much to national development.

However, in the face of new requirements during the cause of Motherland construction and defence in peacetime, to address shortcomings of the mechanism of bureaucratic central planning and subsidisation, which led to a socio-economic crisis in post-war years, basing on the summarisation of the people’s initiatives and creations in reality, our Party carried out Doi moi (Renewal), firstly renewing the theoretical mindset about socialism, part by part in agriculture, industry and gradually shaping the country’s Doi moi policy. Basing on in-depth analysis of the country’s situation and examination of reality, in the spirit of “straightforwardly looking at the truth, making precise assessment of the truth, clarifying the truth” and “reforming mindset”, the 6th National Party Congress (December 1986) identified a Doi moi policy for comprehensively renewing the country, marking an important turning point on the path of transition to socialism in Vietnam. The Doi moi policy has met requirements of the reality, reflected the firm mettle and creative mindset of the Communist Party of Vietnam, and heralded a new period of national development.

After the 6th National Congress, the Party gradually perfected and concretised the Doi moi policy, whose basic and core content is shown in the Platform on national construction in the period of transition to socialism (the 1991 Platform and the 2011 Platform that contains supplements and developments) and the Party’s important documents at national congresses. In the 1990s, surmounting challenges posed by the collapse of the model of socialist realism in the Soviet Union and East European countries, the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Vietnamese people stayed persistent and continued taking firm and creative steps on the path to socialism in a manner matching Vietnam’s concrete conditions and characteristics. The Party Central Committees from the 6th to the 13th tenure have issued many resolutions on the fundamental and pivotal issues of the Party and national development.

By now, although there remain some issues needing further research, we have shaped the general awareness: The socialist society that the Vietnamese people are striving for is one where people are rich; the country is strong, democratic, fair, and civilised; the people hold the mastery; the economy is highly developed on the basis of modern production forces and suitable progressive production relations; the culture is advanced and deeply imbued with the national identity; the people enjoy a wealthy, free, and happy life and have conditions to develop comprehensively; ethnic groups in the Vietnamese community are equal, united, respect and assist one another for common development; the law-governed socialist State of the people, by the people, and for the people is led by the Communist Party; and friendly and cooperative relations with countries around the world are formed.

To that end, we identified the need to step up national industrialisation and modernisation in tandem with developing a knowledge-based economy; develop a socialist-oriented market economy; build an advanced culture deeply imbued with national identity, develop humans, improve people’s material and spiritual lives, and carry out social progress and equality; firmly ensure national defence and security, social order and safety; implement the foreign policy of independence, self-reliance, multilateralisation and diversification of external relations, peace, friendship, cooperation and development, and proactive, active, comprehensive and intensive integration into the world; build socialist democracy, bring into play the will and strength of the great national solidarity combined with the strength of the era; build a law-governed socialist State of the people, by the people, and for the people; and build the Party and political system into a clean and comprehensively strong ones.

The more directions it gave in reality, our Party has become further aware of the fact that the transition to socialism is a long-term and extremely difficult and complicated cause, since it has to make profound changes in nature to all areas of the social life. Vietnam has been advancing towards socialism from a backward agricultural country which skipped capitalism, had very-low-level production forces, and underwent tens of years of war that left very serious consequences while hostile forces have frequently sought ways for sabotage, making the cause even more difficult and complicated. Therefore, it is necessary to undergo a long-term transitional period with many steps, many economic and social forms intertwined, along with the conflict between the old and the new. Skipping capitalism means skipping the regime of capitalist oppression, injustice, and exploitation; and skipping bad habits, vices, and the political institutions and regimes unsuitable to the socialist regime, not the civilised achievements and values that humankind obtained during the development of capitalism. Of course, the inheritance of these achievements must also be conducted in a selective manner basing in the viewpoint of science and development.

Introducing the concept of developing a socialist-oriented market economy is a highly fundamental and creative theoretical breakthrough by our Party, and an important theoretical achievement over nearly 40 years of implementing the Doi moi policy on the basis of the reality in Vietnam and the selective acquisition of the world’s experiences. According to our awareness, the socialist-oriented market economy is a modern market economy integrating into the world, fully and comprehensively operating in accordance with the rules of a market economy, managed by the law-governed socialist State, led by the Communist Party of Vietnam, and complying with the socialist orientation to reach the target of rich people, a strong country, and a fair, democratic, and civilised society. It is a new type of market economy in the history of market economy; a new type of economic organisation complying with the rules of a market economy while, at the same time, basing on and being led and controlled by the principles and nature of socialism, shown in all the three aspects of ownership, management, and distribution. This is not a capitalist market economy nor a full socialist market economy (because our country is still in the transitional period).

In a socialist-oriented market economy, there are various forms of ownership and diverse economic sectors. The economic sectors operating lawfully are all important components of the economy, equal before the law, together developing permanently, cooperating and competing healthily. Among these, the State economy plays the dominant role; the collective and cooperative economies are constantly strengthened and developed; the private economy serves as a significant driving force of the economy; and the foreign-invested economy is encouraged to develop suitable to the socio-economic development strategies and plans. The distribution relation ensures fairness and provides impetus for development; the distribution regime is implemented mainly on the basis of labour outcomes and economic efficiency, as well as the level of contribution of capital and other resources, and distribution through the social security system and social welfare. The State manages the economy through laws, strategies, plannings, plans, policies, and material forces to guide, regulate, and boost the socio-economic development.

A fundamental characteristic and an important attribute of the socialist orientation in the market economy in Vietnam is the compulsory integration of the economy with the society, the harmonisation of economic policies with social ones, and the linkage between economic growth and the realisation of social progress and social justice at every step, every policy, and throughout the development process. This means that progress and social justice should not come until the economy reaches a high level of development, nor should they be sacrificed for the sake of purely economic growth. On the contrary, each economic policy must aim at social development, while each social policy must aim to generate impetus to economic development; legal fortune making must go hand in hand with sustainable hunger elimination and poverty reduction, and support for those who contributed to the nation, and disadvantaged people. This is a principled requirement to ensure a healthy and sustainable development in line with the orientation to socialism.

We consider culture as the spiritual foundation of society, an intrinsic strength, a driving force for national development and protection; take the development of culture in a concerted and harmonious way with economic growth, social progress, and social justice as a fundamental orientation of the process of building socialism in Vietnam. The culture we build is an advanced one, imbued with national identity; one united in diversity, based on progressive and humane values; Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh ideology play a leading role in the social spiritual life. We inherit and promote the fine traditional values of all ethnic groups within the country, absorb the achievements and essence of the human culture, and strive to build a civilised and healthy society for genuine human interests and dignity, with higher levels of knowledge, ethics, physical fitness, lifestyle, and aesthetics. Our Party has always taken human beings to the central position in any development strategy; cultural development and human development as both the goals and the driving force of the Doi moi process; the development of education - training and science - technology as the top national policy; environmental protection as one of the vital issues and a criterion for sustainable development; building happy and progressive families as the solid and healthy cells of society; and achieving gender equality as a criterion for progress and civilisation.

Socialist society is one that aims for progressive and humane values, on the basis that the common interests of the whole society go in harmony with the just interests of individuals, totally different in terms of nature from those that compete to seize individual and group interests. Therefore, it needs and has conditions to build social consensus instead of social opposition or conflict. In the socialist political system, the relationship between the Party, the State, and the people is one among entities unified in terms of goals and interests. All guidelines of the Party, all policies, laws, and activities of the State are for the benefit of the people, with the people's happiness being the goal to strive for. The political model and general governing mechanism is the Party's leadership, the State's management and the people's mastery. Democracy is the essence of the socialist system, both as a goal and a driving force in the construction of socialism and a socialist democratic society, and ensuring genuine power belongs to the people is a vital long-term task of the Vietnamese revolution. Our Party advocates constantly promoting democracy, building a socialist rule-of-law state that truly belongs to the people, by the people, and for the people, based on the alliance of workers, farmers, and intellectuals under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the State represents the people's ownership and also organises the implementation of the Party's guidelines. There are mechanisms to enable the people to exercise direct ownership and representative democracy in various areas of social life and participate in social management. We recognise that the socialist rule-of-law state is, in its nature, different from the bourgeois rule-of-law state at the point that the rule of law under capitalism, in its nature, serves as a tool to protect and serve the interests of the capitalist class, while the rule of law under socialism is a tool to express and realise the people's mastery, ensuring and protecting the interests of the majority of the people. Through law enforcement, the State guarantees the conditions for the people to be the subjects of political power, and exercises dictatorship against any actions of harming the interests of the nation and the people. At the same time, our Party determines that the great national solidarity is a source of strength and a decisive factor that ensures the sustainable success of the revolutionary cause in Vietnam; and continuously promotes equality and unity among ethnic groups and religions.

Deeply recognising the leadership of the Communist Party is the factor that decides the success of the renewal process and ensures that the country develops in the orientation to socialism, we attach particular importance to the work of building and rectifying the Party, taking it as the key task with vital significance for the Party and the socialist regime. The Communist Party of Vietnam is the vanguard of the Vietnamese working class; the Party was born, exists, and develops for the interests of the working class, the working people, and the entire nation. When the Party holds power and leads the entire nation, it is recognised by the entire people as their leader and therefore the Party is the vanguard of the working class, the working people, and the entire Vietnamese nation. However, this does not mean belittling the class nature of the Party, but rather reflects a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the class nature of the Party, as the working class has interests that are unified with those of the working people, and the entire nation. Our Party persists taking Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh ideology as the ideological foundation and the loadstar for revolutionary actions, and democratic centralism as the fundamental organisational principle. The Party exerts its leadership through its platform, strategies, and orientations on major policies and guidelines; through communication, persuasion, mobilisation, organisation, inspection, supervision and through the exemplary actions of Party members; and leading the personnel work in a unified way. Mindful of the risks that the Party can face of corruption, bureaucracy, degeneration, etc., especially in the context of a market economy, the Communist Party of Vietnam has set the requirement for constant self-renewal, self-rectification, and the struggle against opportunism, individualism, corruption, bureaucracy, wastefulness, degeneration, etc., within the Party and the entire political system.

The Doi moi (renewal) process, including the development of a socialist-oriented market economy, has gained achievements of historical significance, bringing great and tangible changes to the country over nearly 40 years. These efforts have helped "our country never enjoy such fortune, power, international standing, and prestige as does today.

From a semi-feudal colony, our country has become an independent and sovereign country spanning 330,000 square kilometres from Huu Nghi Quan (the Friendship Gate) to Ca Mau Cape with more than 3,200 km of coastline and political and economic geography of special significance. Prior to the “Doi moi” process (1986), Vietnam used to be a poor and war-torn country, with huge consequences on human lives, infrastructure, and ecological environment. After the wartime, the US and Western countries imposed trade embargo on Vietnam for nearly 20 years. The regional and international situation was also complicated, causing many disadvantages for us. With a serious shortage of food and essential goods, people's lives were extremely difficult, with about three-quarters of the population living below the poverty line.

Thanks to the implementation of the renovation policy, the economy has developed and grown stronger for the past 40 years, with an average annual growth rate of nearly 7%. The GDP (gross domestic product) has continued to expand, reaching around 430 billion USD in 2023, making Vietnam the fifth largest economy in ASEAN and the 35th among the 40 largest economies in the world. The per capita GDP increased 58 times to approximately 4,300 USD in 2023. Vietnam exited the group of low-income countries in 2008 and is poised to become an upper-middle-income country by 2030, with an expected income of around 7,500 USD. From a country grappling with chronic food shortages, Vietnam has not only ensured food security but has also emerged as a leading global exporter of rice and various agricultural products. The industrial and service sectors have developed rapidly, accounting for around 88% of the GDP. The total import-export turnover has soared, reaching nearly 700 billion USD in 2023. Of this, exports amounted to over 355 billion USD, resulting in a record trade surplus of 28 billion USD. Vietnam has now become the 22nd largest global trading partner. Foreign exchange reserves have strongly surged, hitting 100 billion USD in 2023. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow into the country has grown continuously, with total registered capital increasing by 32%, and disbursed capital rising by 3% to 23 billion USD in 2023 – the highest so far. Vietnam has become one of the leading ASEAN countries in attracting FDI. The country leaped two places in the Global Innovation Index (GII) in 2023, ranking 46th out of 132 countries and territories worldwide.

Currently, Vietnam is in a golden population period with a population exceeding 100 million in 2023 (the figure was just over 20 million, 47 million, and 61 million in 1945, 1975, and 1986, respectively), ranking 16th globally, including approximately 53 million people aged 15 and above. With 54 ethnic groups, the great national solidarity has been constantly promoted. The quality of the population has gradually improved, along with the development of health care, education, training, science, and technology, which is considered a top national policy. Currently, the country has 12.5 doctors and 32 hospital beds per 10,000 people. Alongside China, Vietnam has been recognised by the World Bank as a pioneer in educational reform, achieving remarkable progress.

Economic development has helped the country escape the socio-economic crises in the 1980s and significantly improve the life of the people. The poverty rate has decreased by about 1.5% annually, dropping to 2.93% in accordance with the multidimensional poverty standard in 2023 from 58% under the old standard in 1993. So far, 78% of the total communes nationwide have met new-style rural area standards; most rural communes have roads leading to central areas, gain access to the national electricity grid, have primary and secondary schools, health care stations and telephone networks. The urbanisation process has been stepped up in conjunction with the industrialisation and modernisation of the country. The urbanisation rate has reached about 43%. The economic and social infrastructure systems in both rural and urban areas, especially those for health care, education and training, transport, and post and telecommunications, have experienced robust development. Many modern airports and seaports have been put into operation, along with over 1,900 km of expressways. Meanwhile, 4G and 5G networks have widely covered many areas across the country.

While it could not ensure free education for everyone at all education levels, Vietnam has concentrated on eradicating illiteracy and completing universalisation of primary and secondary education in 2000 and 2014, respectively. The number of university and college students has increased nearly 20 times over the past four decades. Currently, Vietnam has nearly 99% of the total adults who can read and write. While the country could not provide free health care services for the entire population, Vietnam has expanded both mandatory and voluntary health insurance coverage, reaching a rate of 93.35% now (compared to only 5.4% in 1993).

Additionally, attention has been paid to strengthening preventive health care, disease prevention and control, and supporting individuals facing difficult circumstances. Many prevalent diseases have been successfully controlled. Health insurance is provided free of charge for the poor, under-six-year-old children, and the elderly. The malnutrition rate in children and the infant mortality rate have decreased by nearly three times. The average life expectancy of Vietnamese people increased from 62 in 1990 to 73.7 in 2023. Thanks to economic development, we can better care for revolution contributors and heroic Vietnamese mothers, as well as take care of the graves of the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the homeland. Cultural life has also seen significant improvement, with diverse cultural activities. Nearly 80% of the population in Vietnam has got access to the Internet, positioning itself among the nations with the highest rate of information technology development in the world. The UN has recognised Vietnam as one of the leading countries in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In 2022, Vietnam's Human Development Index (HDI) reached 0.737, placing it in the group of countries with a high HDI worldwide, especially in comparison to nations with higher development levels. Vietnam's Happiness Index in 2023 ranked 65th among 137 countries and territories around the world.

During the national construction and development in peace, the Party has still paid great attention to the leadership over the implementation of the Motherland defence tasks by issuing and directing the successful realisation of many national defence strategies in different periods. The latest in this regard is the resolution released at the eighth session of the 13th Party Central Committee on protecting the Motherland in the new situation that affirms the need to always maintain and strengthen the Party’s absolute and direct leadership in all aspects, as well as the State's centralised and unified management and administration for the cause of building and protecting the Motherland. It underlined the need to count on the people, take the people as the root, inspire and promote the spirit of self-reliance and resilience as well as the cultural tradition, patriotism and the strength from the great national solidarity bloc, build the “people-based defence” and consider the people as the decisive factor in the success of the cause of building and defending the Motherland.

The strategy clarifies the task of ensuring national interests at the highest level on the basis of fundamental principles of the United Nations Charter and international law in an equal and cooperative manner for mutual benefit. It highlights the need to prioritise the successful and concerted implementation of political tasks in which socio-economic development is the core, Party building the key, promoting culture the spiritual foundation, and ensuring defence, security a major and regular mission. The strategy also underscores the adequate investment in the building of the all-people defence, people-based security and people’s armed forces, thus meeting the requirements in defending the Motherland early and from afar, safeguarding the country before it is threatened, absolutely avoiding being passive and taken by surprise under any circumstance. Combining the national strength with the strength of the era, promoting the active and proactive integration and enhancing the efficiency of international cooperation are also major contents of the strategy.

Thanks to that, the all-people defence and people-based security have been reinforced and strengthened with enhanced efficiency, while the national sovereignty, the peaceful environment and stability have been maintained, and the social safety ensured. The people’s army and the people’s public security have received investment to become more elite, neat, and strong in terms of politics, ideology, weapons and equipment following the motto of paying first attention to the people and the second to weapons, step by step advancing to a more modern version, with some arms and forces straightly reaching modernity. Complexities in the sea and the borderline have been settled in a flexible, effective, and suitable way. Measures to ensure political security, order, and social safety have been strengthened; criminals of various kinds suppressed; and security and safety of important political event of the country ensured. Wrongful and distorting viewpoints and ideology from hostile forces and reactionary organisations have been refuted, and straightforward dialogues conducted with people with different stances. Vietnam ranked 41st out of the 163 countries and territories in the 2023 Global Peace Index. Our country has been described by foreign investors and international visitors as the world's leading attractive and safe destination.

Looking back on the past external relations path, we are delighted and proud that during the nearly 40 years of renewal, the Party has inherited and promoted national identity, roots and traditions, selectively absorbed the world's quintessence and progressive ideas of the time, developed the theoretical foundation of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh ideology, formed a very special and unique school of foreign affairs and diplomacy imbued with the identity of "Vietnamese bamboo", which is steadfast in principles and flexible in strategy; soft, smart but also very resilient and determined; flexible, creative but very brave and firm in the face of all difficulties and challenges, for the independence and freedom of the nation and the happiness of the people. It upholds solidarity and compassion but is always resolute and persistent in protecting national interests. As a result, from a country under blockade and embargo, our country has now expanded and deepened diplomatic relations with 193 countries, including special relations with three countries, comprehensive strategic partnership with six countries, and strategic partnership with 12 countries. In particular, our country has now established comprehensive strategic partnerships or strategic partnerships with all the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, while broadened its economic and trade relations with 230 countries and territories.

Vietnam has been well performing its role as a friend and trustworthy partner of the international community, raising many initiatives and proposals, and actively and effectively participating in activities of ASEAN, the United Nations, and many other international organisations. External relations activities have bustled and continued, becoming a bright spot of 2023 with many important results and achievements with historical significance. High-ranking leaders of our Party and State have paid official visits to many countries and attended many major international forums, which produced many important results. The successful hosting of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and President of China Xi Jinping, US President Joe Biden, General Secretary of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party and President of Laos Thongloun Sisoulith, and President of the Cambodian People’s Party Hun Sen and many State leaders has made historical events, contributing to affirming that “Vietnam has enjoyed such international standing and reputation like never before”.

The great achievements with historical significance recorded during the Doi moi cause initiated, led and implemented by the Party, are the crystalisation of creativity, the result of a process of persistent and continuous efforts over many terms of the entire of our Party, people, and army, continuing to affirm that our path towards socialism is proper and consistent with objective rule, Vietnamese practice and the development trend of the time, that our Party's innovation path is correct and creative, and that the Party's leadership is the decisive factor determining all the victories of the Vietnamese revolution. The Party's political platform has continued to be the ideological and theoretical flag that leads our nation in the path of comprehensively and concertedly promoting the reform process, and the foundation for our Party to perfect its policy of building and protecting the socialist Vietnamese Motherland in the new period.

The rich and vivid reality of the Vietnamese revolution from the day the Party was established to now has proven that the correct and clear-sighted leadership by the Party is the leading factor determining all the victories of the revolution, creating many miracles for Vietnam. On the other hand, through the process of revolutionary leadership, our Party is trained and has become increasingly mature, worthy of its role and mission of leading the revolution leadership and deserving the trust and expectation of the people. Such a reality affirms this one truth: In Vietnam, there is no other political force other than the Communist Party of Vietnam that has adequate mettle, wisdom, experience, prestige, and capability to lead the country through all the hardships and trials, and to bring our nation’s revolutionary cause from one victory to another. And right in that process, our Party has accumulated and drawn many invaluable lessons, forging glorious traditions for which we have the responsibility to try our best to preserve and promote. It is the tradition of infinite loyalty to the national and class interest, and persistence in the goal and ideal of national independence closely linked with socialism based on Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh Thought. It is the tradition of solid maintenance of independence and autonomy in guidelines; firm grasp, creative application and development of Marxism-Leninism, and due reference to international experience with a view to working out sound policies and organising the effective execution of revolutionary tasks. It is the tradition of flesh-and-blood bond between the Party and the people, and consistent idea of serving the people as both raison d’etre and goal in life and work. It is the tradition of solidarity and unanimity, with the close organisation and discipline, and strictness and transparency based on democratic centralism, self-criticism, criticism and comradeship. It is the tradition of faithful and crystal-clear internationalist solidarity built on lofty principles and goals. With all the modesty of revolutionaries, we can still say: “How great our Party is! How heroic our people are! Never before has our country enjoyed such a fortune, strength, international position, and prestige as today”. (To be continued)

Understanding the Party General Secretary’s conotation of 'Vietnam bamboo diplomacy'
General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong chairs Central Military Commission’s review conference
General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong attends 8th National Congress of Vietnam Farmers’ Union
Party General Secretary received Chairman of Japanese Communist Party Presidium
Understanding the Party General Secretary’s conotation of 'Vietnam bamboo diplomacy'

(Source: VNA)